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Notes Strabismus Ophthalmology Pg Exam Notes: A Comprehensive Guide

Jese Leos
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Published in I Notes Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes
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Strabismus, commonly known as squint, is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned, resulting in abnormal eye movements and potential visual impairment. It is a common condition affecting children and adults, and understanding its various aspects is crucial for ophthalmology PG exam preparation. These comprehensive notes provide a detailed overview of strabismus, encompassing its definition, classification, diagnosis, and management.

Definition of Strabismus

Strabismus is defined as a condition where the visual axes of the eyes are not parallel and do not intersect at the same point of fixation. This misalignment can be constant or intermittent, affecting one or both eyes.

I Notes Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes
I Notes - Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes

5 out of 5

Language : English
File size : 317 KB
Text-to-Speech : Enabled
Screen Reader : Supported
Enhanced typesetting : Enabled
Print length : 92 pages
Lending : Enabled

Classification of Strabismus

Strabismus is classified based on various parameters:

  1. Direction of Deviation:
    • Esotropia: Inward deviation of the eye
    • Exotropia: Outward deviation of the eye
    • Hypertropia: Upward deviation of the eye
    • Hypotropia: Downward deviation of the eye
  2. Onset:
    • Congenital: Present at birth or within the first six months of life
    • Acquired: Develops after the first six months of life
  3. Etiology:
    • Paralytic: Caused by paresis or paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles
    • Non-Paralytic: Not caused by paresis or paralysis of extraocular muscles

Diagnosis of Strabismus

Diagnosis of strabismus involves a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including:

  1. History: Including age of onset, symptoms, and any associated medical conditions
  2. Ocular Motility: Assessment of eye movements, including range of motion and ductions
  3. Cover-Uncover Test: Alternately covering and uncovering the eyes to observe the eye movements and detect any strabismus
  4. Prism Test: Using prisms to measure the angle of deviation and determine the type of strabismus
  5. Fundus Examination: To rule out any underlying ocular abnormalities

Management of Strabismus

Management of strabismus depends on the type and severity of the condition. Treatment options include:

  1. Observation: Monitoring the condition for stability or progression
  2. Orthoptic Exercises: Non-surgical exercises to improve eye alignment and coordination
  3. Glasses: Prescription lenses to correct refractive errors and improve binocular vision
  4. Prism Therapy: Using prisms in glasses to shift the image on the retina and reduce the angle of deviation
  5. Surgery: To adjust the length or insertion of extraocular muscles and correct the eye alignment

Specific Types of Strabismus

There are various specific types of strabismus that require individualized management approaches:

  1. Congenital Esotropia: Inward deviation of the eyes present at birth, often requiring early surgical intervention
  2. Accommodative Esotropia: Inward deviation of the eyes associated with hyperopia (farsightedness),correctable with glasses
  3. Intermittent Exotropia: Outward deviation of the eyes that occurs intermittently, particularly at distance fixation
  4. Paralytic Strabismus: Misalignment of the eyes due to paralysis or paresis of one or more extraocular muscles, requiring specific management depending on the affected muscle(s)

Strabismus is a common condition in ophthalmology that requires proper diagnosis and management. Understanding its definition, classification, diagnosis, and management is crucial for PG exam preparation. These comprehensive notes provide a detailed overview of the topic, covering various aspects of strabismus to enhance your understanding and facilitate your preparation for the exam.

I Notes Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes
I Notes - Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes

5 out of 5

Language : English
File size : 317 KB
Text-to-Speech : Enabled
Screen Reader : Supported
Enhanced typesetting : Enabled
Print length : 92 pages
Lending : Enabled
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I Notes Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes
I Notes - Strabismus: Ophthalmology PG Exam Notes

5 out of 5

Language : English
File size : 317 KB
Text-to-Speech : Enabled
Screen Reader : Supported
Enhanced typesetting : Enabled
Print length : 92 pages
Lending : Enabled
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